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Liquid Biofuel

Biodiesel is a renewable alternative fuel made from various sources ranging from waste vegetable oil to soybeans. It can often be used seamlessly in diesel engines of all kinds. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than standard petroleum diesel. Since it can be produced locally, biodiesel has the potential to decrease our dependence on foreign countries for oil, and enhance local economies where biodiesel production is taking place.

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. As a fuel, ethanol can be used in more than 30 flex fuel vehicle models that have been designed to run on alcohol, gasoline, or any combination of the two fuels from the same tank. Most ethanol today is produced from corn or sugar cane, although this will change as cheaper cellulosic ethanol made from fast growing woody grasses and other biomass becomes a reality.

Solid Biomass
Biomass, sometimes known as biomatter can be used to produce biofuel. This fuel can be delivered in many forms, such as biodiesel to fuel modern diesel vehicles and heat to heat water and drive turbines. Biomass comes in many forms, such as waste and crude vegetable and animal oil and fats (lipids), sugar cane residue, wheat chaff, corn cobs and other plant matter. In fact biomass can be defined as any recently living organisms or their metabolic by-products, such as manure from cows.

Though often considered as a member of the solid biomass family, dried compressed peat is not strictly one. It does not meet the criteria of being a renewable form of energy, or of the carbon being recently absorbed from atmospheric carbon dioxide by growing plants. It is regarded as a fossil fuel and when burned it adds to the CO2 present in the atmosphere.

Plants partly use photosynthesis to store solar energy, water and CO2 and this matter can be, and is, burnt quite successfully. An advantage of this process is that no net CO2 is released, whereas animal faeces release methane under the influence of anaerobic bacteria. These methods can all be used to generate electricity. Of course electricity is not the only form of energy available by utilizing solid biomass. In some areas corn, sugar beets, cane and grasses are grown specifically to produce biomass fuels, such as biodiesel, ethanol and bagasse (often a by-product of sugar cane cultivation) that can be burned in internal combustion engines or boilers.

Typically biomass is burned to release its stored chemical energy. Research into more efficient methods of converting solid biomass and other fuels into electricity utilizing fuel cells is an area which is ongoing.

Wood & Wood Waste
Wood is a substantial renewable resource that can be used as a fuel to generate electric power and useful thermal output.  Wood for use as fuel comes from a wide variety of sources.  The Nation’s forestland (or timberland) is the primary, and in most cases original, resource base for fuelwood.  Wood for fuel use is also derived from private land clearing and silvi-culture and from urban tree and landscape residues.  A third major wood resource is waste wood, which includes manufacturing and wood processing wastes, as well as construction and demolition debris.

Municipal Solid Waste
Municipal solid waste (MSW), also called urban solid waste, is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area. They are in either solid or semisolid form and generally exclude industrial hazardous wastes. The term residual waste relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for reprocessing.

  • Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper (can also be recycled).
  • Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc.
  • Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris.
  • Composite wastes: waste clothing, Tetra Paks, waste plastics such as toys.
  • Domestic hazardous waste (also called "household hazardous waste") & toxic waste: medication, e-waste, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish.

Landfill gas
Release of gases such as methane from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste at landfill sites.

Waste Management creates clean, renewable energy from ordinary waste.

Landfill gas is a renewable energy source. Waste Management's landfill gas-to-energy projects generate enough energy to power 400,000 homes every day. That offsets almost 2 million tons of coal per year. These projects also reduce emissions of greenhouses gases into the atmosphere – an added bonus for our environment. Waste Management currently has 110 landfill gas-to-energy facilities and is working toward a widespread implementation for the future.

Project - BioGen (Biomass - as the fifth fuel)

New Energy Policy – 5th Fuel Policy

“To supplement the conventional supply of energy, new sources such as renewable energy will be encouraged. In this regard, the fuel diversification policy which comprises oil, gas, hydro and coal will be extended to include renewable energy as the fifth fuel, particularly biomass, biogas, municipal waste, solar and mini-hydro. Of these, biomass resources such as oil palm and wood waste as well as rice husks, will be used on a wider basis mainly for electricity generation. Other potential sources of energy will include palm diesel and hydrogen fuel.”

Biogen - http://www.ptm.org.my/biogen/

(a) National Programme on Grid Connected Palm Oil Biomass Power Generation

(b) Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP)